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As in their earlier victories, the Luftwaffe quickly gained air superiority and helped armoured columns and motorised infantry punch holes through the Soviet front line.
Barbarossa had three primary objectives — the Baltic States and Leningrad in the north, Moscow in the centre, and the economic resources of the Ukraine and southern Russia in the south.
This led to a division of focus for which Hitler and his generals were later to be widely criticised. Initially, all went well for the Germans, some units advancing 50 miles on the first day, although resistance was fiercer than expected in the south.
With Stalin personally intervening to forbid generals to retreat, large Soviet forces were encircled and destroyed or taken prisoner. But despite the enormous casualties they had inflicted, the Germans had failed to land a decisive blow.
They had underestimated both the resources of the Soviet Union and its willingness to accept massive losses. Now the German offensives were running out of steam, as front-line units halted for resupply and replacements.
At a crucial phase of the operation, Hitler insisted that the panzer divisions of Army Group Centre, which were advancing on Moscow, were diverted to overcome resistance in the north and south.
With this achieved, the drive on Moscow resumed on 2 October, codenamed Operation Typhoon. Ten days later German units were within 90 miles of the Russian capital, but stubborn Soviet resistance and heavy German casualties, combined with heavy rain which turned bad roads into rivers of mud, slowed the advance to a crawl.
By the beginning of December, German troops were within sight of the spires of Moscow. However, a massive Soviet counterattack, using fresh units brought in from the East, supported by T tanks, drove the Germans back.
As the Russian winter set in, German offensive operations were abandoned. Even though the Soviets were in a terrible condition, the Axis did not complete its objectives.
Tactically , the Germans held some of the most important economic areas of the Soviet Union, mainly in Ukraine. The winter of began unusually early.
It was not noted as being particularly bad by the natives but German soldiers accustomed to warmer temperatures were ill prepared.
German equipment broke down in the cold, and some men were still wearing summer uniforms which they stuffed with newspapers in an attempt to stay warm.
Many German soldiers froze to death in the extreme cold. It was followed in by "Fall Blau" Case Blue , intended to take the Caucasus region and its oilfields.
This also failed. In Russia it is called the Great Patriotic War. A few years later, after pushing the German soldiers out of Russia, the Soviets were able to launch a counter-invasion into German occupied territories in Eastern Europe.
They invaded Germany itself, and started the Battle of Berlin , the final battle before Germany's surrender. Although the Russians eventually repelled the Germans, it was at a tremendous cost.
Around five times more Russians died than Germans. Operation Barbarossa was the largest military operation in human history, both by the number of men involved and by the number of people who died.