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Wherever he goes he leaves a path of radiation and those who he encounters quickly lose their hair and age and wither until they die. Asiatic lions Panthera leo persica are a subspecies of African lion, but only one very small population survives in India's Gir Forest.

Lions are the only cats that live in groups, which are called prides—though there is one population of solitary lions.

Prides are family units that may comprise anywhere from two to 40 lions—including up to to three or four males, a dozen or so females, and their young.

All of a pride's lionesses are related, and female cubs typically stay with the group as they age. Young males eventually leave and establish their own prides by taking over a group headed by another male.

Males defend the pride's territory, marking the area with urine, roaring menacingly to warn intruders, and chasing off animals that encroach on their turf.

Female lions are the pride's primary hunters and leaders. They often work together to prey upon antelopes, zebras, wildebeest, and other large animals of the open grasslands.

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Young lions do not help to hunt until they are about a year old. Lions will hunt alone if the opportunity presents itself, and they also steal kills from hyenas or wild dogs.

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Top 10 BIGGEST LİONS İn The World

This result suggested that the taxonomic position of lions in Central Africa may require revision. Other lion subspecies or sister species to the modern lion existed in prehistoric times: [22].

Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from all Felidae species indicate that their evolutionary radiation began in Asia in the Miocene around The Panthera lineage is estimated to have genetically diverged from the common ancestor of the Felidae around 9.

Hybridisation between lion and snow leopard P. Estimates for the divergence time of the modern and cave lion lineages range from , to , years ago based on mutation rate per generation time of the modern lion.

There is no evidence for gene flow between the two lineages, indicating that they did not share the same geographic area.

Lion populations in East and Southern Africa became separated from populations in West and North Africa when the equatorial rainforest expanded , to 81, years ago.

As the rainforest decreased and thus gave rise to more open habitats, lions moved from West to Central Africa. Lions from North Africa dispersed to southern Europe and Asia between 38, and 8, ago.

Extinction of lions in southern Europe, North Africa and the Middle East interrupted gene flow between lion populations in Asia and Africa.

Genetic evidence revealed numerous mutations in lion samples from East and Southern Africa, which indicates that this group has a longer evolutionary history than genetically less diverse lion samples from Asia and West and Central Africa.

This phenomenon indicates that Central Africa was a melting pot of lion populations after they had become isolated, possibly migrating through corridors in the Nile Basin during the early Holocene.

In zoos, lions have been bred with tigers to create hybrids for the curiosity of visitors or for scientific purpose. The lion is a muscular, deep-chested cat with a short, rounded head, a reduced neck and round ears.

Its fur varies in colour from light buff to silvery grey, yellowish red and dark brown. The colours of the underparts are generally lighter. A new-born lion has dark spots , which fade as the cub reaches adulthood, although faint spots often may still be seen on the legs and underparts.

The lion is the only member of the cat family that displays obvious sexual dimorphism. Males have broader heads and a prominent mane that grows downwards and backwards covering most of the head, neck, shoulders, and chest.

The mane is typically brownish and tinged with yellow, rust and black hairs. The functions of the spur are unknown.

It is readily identifiable by the age of seven months. Of the living felid species, the lion is rivaled only by the tiger in length, weight and height at the shoulder.

Due to the amount of skull variation in the two species, usually only the structure of the lower jaw can be used as a reliable indicator of species.

The size and weight of adult lions varies across global range and habitats. The male lion's mane is the most recognisable feature of the species.

Mane colour varies and darkens with age; research shows its colour and size are influenced by environmental factors such as average ambient temperature.

Mane length apparently signals fighting success in male—male relationships; darker-maned individuals may have longer reproductive lives and higher offspring survival, although they suffer in the hottest months of the year.

The presence, absence, colour and size of the mane are associated with genetic precondition, sexual maturity, climate and testosterone production; the rule of thumb is that a darker, fuller mane indicates a healthier animal.

In Serengeti National Park , female lions favour males with dense, dark manes as mates. Almost all male lions in Pendjari National Park are either maneless or have very short manes.

The hormone testosterone has been linked to mane growth; castrated lions often have little to no mane because the removal of the gonads inhibits testosterone production.

The white lion is a rare morph with a genetic condition called leucism which is caused by a double recessive allele.

It is not albino; it has normal pigmentation in the eyes and skin. They were removed from the wild in the s, thus decreasing the white lion gene pool.

Nevertheless, 17 births have been recorded in five prides between and African lions live in scattered populations across Sub-Saharan Africa.

The lion prefers grassy plains and savannahs, scrub bordering rivers and open woodlands with bushes. It is absent from rainforest and rarely enters closed forest.

Its habitat is a mixture of dry savannah forest and very dry, deciduous scrub forest. In Africa, the range of the lion originally spanned most of the central rainforest zone and the Sahara desert.

In southern Europe and Asia, the lion once ranged in regions where climatic conditions supported an abundance of prey. By the late 19th century, it had been extirpated in most of Turkey.

Intermittent bursts of activity continue until dawn, when hunting most often takes place. The lion is the most social of all wild felid species, living in groups of related individuals with their offspring.

Such a group is called a " pride ". Groups of male lions are called "coalitions". Large prides, consisting of up to 30 individuals, have been observed.

Some lions are "nomads" that range widely and move around sporadically, either in pairs or alone. A lion may switch lifestyles; nomads can become residents and vice versa.

Females lions stay closer to their natal pride. Therefore, female lions in an area are more closely related to each other than male lions in the same area.

The area occupied by a pride is called a "pride area" whereas that occupied by a nomad is a "range". The reasons for the development of sociality in lionesses—the most pronounced in any cat species—are the subject of much debate.

Increased hunting success appears to be an obvious reason, but this is uncertain upon examination; coordinated hunting allows for more successful predation but also ensures non-hunting members reduce per capita calorific intake.

Some females, however, take a role raising cubs that may be left alone for extended periods. Members of the pride tend to regularly play the same role in hunts and hone their skills.

The health of the hunters is the primary need for the survival of the pride; hunters are the first to consume the prey at the site it is taken.

Other benefits include possible kin selection ; sharing food within the family; protecting the young, maintaining territory and individual insurance against injury and hunger.

Both males and females defend the pride against intruders, but the male lion is better-suited for this purpose due to its stockier, more powerful build.

Some individuals consistently lead the defence against intruders, while others lag behind. Asiatic lion prides differ in group composition.

Male Asiatic lions are solitary or associate with up to three males, forming a loose pride while females associate with up to 12 other females, forming a stronger pride together with their cubs.

Female and male lions associate only when mating. Males in coalitions of three or four individuals exhibit a pronounced hierarchy, in which one male dominates the others and mates more frequently.

The lion is a generalist hypercarnivore [] and is considered to be both an apex and keystone predator due to its wide prey spectrum. Lions also hunt common warthog depending on availability, although the species is below the preferred weight range.

Lions kill other predators such as leopard , cheetah and spotted hyena but seldom consume them. Young lions first display stalking behaviour at around three months of age, although they do not participate in hunting until they are almost a year old and begin to hunt effectively when nearing the age of two.

Males attached to prides do not usually participate in group hunting. Lions are not particularly known for their stamina; for instance, a lioness' heart comprises only 0.

They take advantage of factors that reduce visibility; many kills take place near some form of cover or at night. They usually pull it down by the rump and kill by a strangling bite to the throat.

They also kill prey by enclosing its mouth and nostrils in their jaws. Lions typically consume prey at the location of the hunt but sometimes drag large prey into cover.

Cubs suffer most when food is scarce but otherwise all pride members eat their fill, including old and crippled lions, which can live on leftovers.

On hot days, the pride retreats to shade with one or two males standing guard. Lions scavenge on carrion when the opportunity arises; they scavenge animals dead from natural causes such as disease or those that were killed by other predators.

Scavenging lions keep a constant lookout for circling vultures, which indicate the death or distress of an animal.

Lions and spotted hyenas occupy a similar ecological niche and where they coexist they compete for prey and carrion; a review of data across several studies indicates a dietary overlap of Lions seize the kills of spotted hyenas; in the Ngorongoro crater it is common for lions to subsist largely on kills stolen from hyenas, causing the hyenas to increase their kill rate.

The two species attack one another even when there is no food involved for no apparent reason. Spotted hyenas have adapted by frequently mobbing lions that enter their territories.

Lions tend to dominate cheetahs and leopards, steal their kills and kill their cubs and even adults when given the chance.

Population densities of wild dogs are low in areas where lions are more abundant. Lions have been observed killing crocodiles that ventured onto land.

Most lionesses reproduce by the time they are four years of age. During withdrawal of the penis, the spines rake the walls of the female's vagina, which may cause ovulation.

She will often hunt alone while the cubs are still helpless, staying relatively close to the den. They weigh 1. Usually, the mother does not integrate herself and her cubs back into the pride until the cubs are six to eight weeks old.

They soon begin to immerse themselves in the pride life, however, playing among themselves or attempting to initiate play with the adults.

Male tolerance of the cubs varies—sometimes a male will patiently let the cubs play with his tail or his mane, while another may snarl and bat the cubs away.

Pride lionesses often synchronise their reproductive cycles and communal rearing and suckling of the young, which suckle indiscriminately from any or all of the nursing females in the pride.

The synchronisation of births is advantageous because the cubs grow to being roughly the same size and have an equal chance of survival, and sucklings are not dominated by older cubs.

Male lions reach maturity at about three years of age and at four to five years are capable of challenging and displacing adult males associated with another pride.

They begin to age and weaken at between 10 and 15 years of age at the latest. When one or more new males oust the previous males associated with a pride, the victors often kill any existing young cubs , perhaps because females do not become fertile and receptive until their cubs mature or die.

Females often fiercely defend their cubs from a usurping male but are rarely successful unless a group of three or four mothers within a pride join forces against the male.

When a pride becomes too large, however, the youngest generation of female cubs may be forced to leave to find their own territory.

When a new male lion takes over a pride, adolescents both male and female may be evicted. Although adult lions have no natural predators, evidence suggests most die violently from attacks by humans or other lions.

Careless lions may be maimed when hunting prey. Ticks commonly infest the ears, neck and groin regions of lions. Lions sought unsuccessfully to evade the biting flies by climbing trees or crawling into hyena burrows; many died or migrated and the local population dropped from 70 to 15 individuals.

Captive lions have been infected with canine distemper virus CDV since at least the mid s. During the outbreak, several lions died from pneumonia and encephalitis.

When resting, lion socialisation occurs through a number of behaviours; the animal's expressive movements are highly developed. The most common peaceful, tactile gestures are head rubbing and social licking , [] which have been compared with the role of allogrooming among primates.

Males tend to rub other males, while cubs and females rub females. The head and neck are the most common parts of the body licked; this behaviour may have arisen out of utility because lions cannot lick these areas themselves.

Lions have an array of facial expressions and body postures that serve as visual gestures. The lion's repertoire of vocalisations is large; variations in intensity and pitch appear to be central to communication.

Most lion vocalisations are variations of growling, snarling, meowing and roaring. Other sounds produced include purring, puffing, bleating and humming.

Roaring is used to advertise its presence. Lions most often roar at night, a sound that can be heard from a distance of 8 kilometres 5.

Several large and well-managed protected areas in Africa host large lion populations. Where an infrastructure for wildlife tourism has been developed, cash revenue for park management and local communities is a strong incentive for lion conservation.

Primary causes of the decline include disease and human interference. By , no lions were recorded in the protected area so the population is considered locally extinct.

In , it was estimated that this population consists of about animals, including fewer than mature individuals. They persist in three protected areas in the region, mostly in one population in the W A P protected area complex, shared by Benin , Burkina Faso and Niger.

This population is listed as Critically Endangered. A population occurs in Cameroon's Waza National Park , where between approximately 14 and 21 animals persisted as of These were the first sightings of lions in the country in 39 years.

The strategies seek to maintain suitable habitat, ensure a sufficient wild prey base for lions, reduce factors that lead to further fragmentation of populations, and make lion—human coexistence sustainable.

Such measures contribute to mitigating human—lion conflict. The population has risen from approximately lions in to about in The presence of numerous human habitations close to the National Park results in conflict between lions, local people and their livestock.

Lions imported to Europe before the middle of the 19th century were possibly foremost Barbary lions from North Africa, or Cape lions from Southern Africa.

WildLink International in collaboration with Oxford University launched an ambitious International Barbary Lion Project with the aim of identifying and breeding Barbary lions in captivity for eventual reintroduction into a national park in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

In , the Association of Zoos and Aquariums started a Species Survival Plan for the Asiatic lion to increase its chances of survival.

In , it was found that most lions in North American zoos were hybrids between African and Asiatic lions. Wild-born lions were imported to American zoos from Africa between and Breeding was continued in in the frame of an African lion Species Survival Plan.

Lions are part of a group of exotic animals that have been central to zoo exhibits since the late 18th century.

Although many modern zoos are more selective about their exhibits, [] there are more than 1, African and Asiatic lions in zoos and wildlife parks around the world.

They are considered an ambassador species and are kept for tourism, education and conservation purposes. His two sisters, born in , were still alive in August The first European "zoos" spread among noble and royal families in the 13th century, and until the 17th century were called seraglios ; at that time they came to be called menageries , an extension of the cabinet of curiosities.

They spread from France and Italy during the Renaissance to the rest of Europe. Lions were kept in cramped and squalid conditions at London Zoo until a larger lion house with roomier cages was built in the s.

Hagenbeck designed lion enclosures for both Melbourne Zoo and Sydney's Taronga Zoo ; although his designs were popular, the use of bars and caged enclosures prevailed in many zoos until the s.

The practice began in the early 19th century by Frenchman Henri Martin and American Isaac Van Amburgh , who both toured widely and whose techniques were copied by a number of followers.

Martin composed a pantomime titled Les Lions de Mysore "the lions of Mysore" , an idea Amburgh quickly borrowed.

These acts eclipsed equestrianism acts as the central display of circus shows and entered public consciousness in the early 20th century with cinema.

In demonstrating the superiority of human over animal, lion taming served a purpose similar to animal fights of previous centuries.

The now-iconic lion tamer's chair was possibly first used by American Clyde Beatty — Lion hunting has occurred since ancient times and was often a royal pastime; intended to demonstrate the power of the king over nature.

The earliest surviving record of lion hunting is an ancient Egyptian inscription dated circa BC that mentions Pharaoh Amenhotep III killing lions "with his own arrows" during the first ten years of his rule.

The Assyrians would release captive lions in a reserved space for the king to hunt; this event would be watched by spectators as the king and his men, on horseback or chariots, killed the lions with arrows and spears.

Lions were also hunted during the Mughal Empire , where Emperor Jahangir is said to have excelled at it. The Maasai people have traditionally viewed the killing of lions as a rite of passage.

Historically, lions were hunted by individuals, however, due to reduced lion populations, elders discourage solo lion hunts. Lions do not usually hunt humans but some usually males seem to seek them out.

One well-publicised case is the Tsavo maneaters ; in , 28 officially recorded railway workers building the Kenya-Uganda Railway were taken by lions over nine months during the construction of a bridge in Kenya.

The infirmity theory, including tooth decay, is not favoured by all researchers; an analysis of teeth and jaws of man-eating lions in museum collections suggests that while tooth decay may explain some incidents, prey depletion in human-dominated areas is a more likely cause of lion predation on humans.

Lions' proclivity for man-eating has been systematically examined. American and Tanzanian scientists report that man-eating behaviour in rural areas of Tanzania increased greatly from to At least villagers were attacked and many eaten over this period.

While the expansion of villages into bush country is one concern, the authors argue conservation policy must mitigate the danger because in this case, conservation contributes directly to human deaths.

Cases in Lindi in which lions seize humans from the centres of substantial villages have been documented. According to Robert R.

Frump, Mozambican refugees regularly crossing Kruger National Park, South Africa, at night are attacked and eaten by lions; park officials have said man-eating is a problem there.

Frump said thousands may have been killed in the decades after apartheid sealed the park and forced refugees to cross the park at night.

For nearly a century before the border was sealed, Mozambicans had regularly crossed the park in daytime with little harm.

The lion is one of the most widely recognised animal symbols in human culture. It has been extensively depicted in sculptures and paintings, on national flags, and in contemporary films and literature.

The lion has been depicted as "king of the jungle" and "king of beasts", and thus became a popular symbol for royalty and stateliness.

Depictions of lions are known from the Upper Paleolithic period. Carvings and paintings of lions discovered in the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves in France have been dated to 15, to 17, years old.

The sculpture has been dated to least 32, years old—and as early as 40, years ago [] —and originated from the Aurignacian culture.

In sub-Saharan Africa, the lion has been a common character in stories, proverbs and dances, but rarely featured in visual arts. In parts of West Africa, lions symbolised the top class of their social hierarchies.

In other East African traditions, the lion is the symbol of laziness. The ancient Egyptians portrayed several of their war deities as lionesses, which they revered as fierce hunters.

The sphinx , a figure with a lion's body and the head of a human or other creature, represented a pharaoh or deity who had taken on this protective role.

The lion was a prominent symbol in ancient Mesopotamia from Sumer up to Assyrian and Babylonian times, where it was strongly associated with kingship.

In the Book of Judges , Samson kills a lion as he travels to visit a Philistine woman. Judg Indo-Persian chroniclers regarded the lion as keeper of order in the realm of animals.

The Sanskrit word mrigendra signifies a lion as king of animals in general or deer in particular. It was originally used only by Rajputs , a Hindu Kshatriya or military caste but is used by millions of Hindu Rajputs and more than twenty million Sikhs today.

It was made the National Emblem of India in Because lions have never been native to China, early depictions were somewhat unrealistic; after the introduction of Buddhist art to China in the Tang Dynasty after the sixth century AD, lions were usually depicted wingless with shorter, thicker bodies and curly manes.

Lion-headed figures and amulets were excavated in tombs in the Greek islands of Crete , Euboea , Rhodes , Paros and Chios.

They are associated with the Egyptian deity Sekhmet and date to the early Iron Age between the 9th and 6th centuries BC.

In some medieval stories, lions were portrayed as allies and companions. Lions continue to appear in modern literature as characters including the messianic Aslan in the novel The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and The Chronicles of Narnia series by C.

Lewis , [] and the comedic Cowardly Lion in L. Lions are frequently depicted on coats of arms , either as a device on shields or as supporters , but the lioness is used much less frequently.

It is traditionally depicted in a great variety of attitudes , although within French heraldry only lions rampant are considered to be lions; feline figures in any other position are instead referred to as leopards.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Lion disambiguation. Conservation status. Linnaeus , [3]. Further information: Panthera hybrid.

Further information: White lion. A skeletal mount of a lion attacking a common eland , on display at The Museum of Osteology. Lion attacked by spotted hyenas in Sabi Sand Game Reserve.

Play media. Lion roar. Lion in Melbourne Zoo enjoying an elevated grassy area with some tree shelter. Main article: Lion hunting. See also: Lion baiting.

Upper Paleolithic cave painting depicting cave lions, found in the Chauvet Cave, France. The Lion Capital of Ashoka , which has been a emblem of India.

Art by W. Main article: Cultural depictions of lions. In Wilson, D. M eds. Johns Hopkins University Press. Tomus I decima, reformata ed.

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After several weeks, both the lioness and her cubs will rejoin the pride. Contemporary lions live in the wild to about 12 years of age, although lions in captivity live almost twice that long.

In the wild, rivalries amongst males are so frequent that the constant fighting lowers their lifespan by nearly fifty per cent.

Lion sounds include roaring, snarling, hissing, coughing, woofing and miaowling. They also head rub and lick members of their pride.

Lion depictions have been found dating back as far as 32, years through carvings and paintings from more than a dozen caves in England and Europe including the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves in France Lascaux dates from 17, years ago, Chauvet from , years ago.

Lions once roamed in large numbers throughout Africa. Even 50 years ago there were more than , lions living in the wild, Today, their numbers have been drastically reduced to less than 15, lions.

Like most wild cats, lion populations are are rapidly downtrending due to habitat loss, illegal trade, poaching, hunting, retaliation killing and loss of prey.

Many areas where lions once roamed have become farm or cattle lands. Lions are also being breed in captivity and killed to provide skins and other types of lion products.

Lion Conservation Poll. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. I think there should be more shows like Big Cat Diary and conservation efforts like in the show Lion Country.

I think these ideas would spread the word, especially to young kids that watch Animal Planet before and after school.

I think this would be a good for the up incoming youth. As of only two subspecies are now recognized: Panthera leo leo — includes lion populations in West Africa and northern parts of Central Africa.

Interesting Facts About Lions The second biggest wild cat. Males have a brown mane. Lions rest up to 20 hours a day. One of the most well-known animals on the planet.

They live in groups prides of 10 to 15 lions. The roar of a male lion can be heard up to five miles away. Females do most of the hunting, while males defend their territory.

The Cave Lion A molecular study of ancient fossils suggests the Panthera species could have begun as long ago as 2 to 3 million years but the clearest and most abundant fossilized evidence dates from Europe, Siberia and Alaska about , years ago where the enormous Cave Lion Panthera leo fossilis roamed.

Physical Appearance Lions have a big chest and fur that ranges in color from light beige to a reddish and dark brown appearance.

Habitat Where Lions Live Lions typically inhabit savanna and grassland, but can also live in bush and forest. Lion Prides Most big cats live solitary lives but not so the lion.

Reproduction and Lifespan The female lion gestation period pregnancy is a little over days. Communication Lion sounds include roaring, snarling, hissing, coughing, woofing and miaowling.

In your opinion, what is the main reason for the decline of lion populations in Africa and other parts of the world? Loss of habitat territory. Human - lion conflict.

Loss of prey food. Trophy hunting hunting for sport. Illegal wildlife trafficking body parts and skin. Other please explain in the comment box below.

Lion Conservation Organizations Lion conservation organizations, groups working to preserve and protect the lion Read More.

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